Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Age Demographics
A demographic breakdown, by age, of the population in the region. Source: CANSIM tables providing annual estimates by census division, fertility and mortality rates, and projected population estimates by province.

A demographic breakdown, by age, of the population in the region.

Source: CANSIM tables providing annual estimates by census division, fertility and mortality rates, and projected population estimates by province.

Average Earnings
The total industry earnings for a region divided by number of jobs. Includes wages, salaries, and supplements (additional employee benefits). Source: StatCan, Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH)

The total industry earnings for a region divided by number of jobs. Includes wages, salaries, and supplements (additional employee benefits).

Source: StatCan, Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH)

Business Location
A Business Location refers to a business's physical building. These locations are classified by NAICS code and employee size band (i.e. how many employees the business has). Unlike industry data available elsewhere in Analyst, industry…

A Business Location refers to a business’s physical building. These locations are classified by NAICS code and employee size band (i.e. how many employees the business has). Unlike industry data available elsewhere in Analyst, industry data in the Industries by Business Location Size report is available down to the 6-digit NAICS level.

Source: StatCan’s Canadian Business Patterns product.

Canadian Business Patterns (CBP)
Canadian Business Patterns.

Canadian Business Patterns.

Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS)
The Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS) provides national labour market analysis and 10-year labour market forecasts that career practitioners may find useful when assisting clients explore their career opportunities. Source: BC Centre for Employment Excellence 

The Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS) provides national labour market analysis and 10-year labour market forecasts that career practitioners may find useful when assisting clients explore their career opportunities.

Source: BC Centre for Employment Excellence 

Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System (CANSIM)
CANSIM is a comprehensive database from Statistics Canada containing more than 52 million numeric time series covering a wide variety of social and economic indicators. Source: The University of British Columbia 

CANSIM is a comprehensive database from Statistics Canada containing more than 52 million numeric time series covering a wide variety of social and economic indicators.

Source: The University of British Columbia 

Census Agglomeration (CA)
Census Agglomeration is an area consisting of one or more neighbouring municipalities situated around a core. A census agglomeration must have a core population of at least 10,000. Source: Statistics Canada

Census Agglomeration is an area consisting of one or more neighbouring municipalities situated around a core. A census agglomeration must have a core population of at least 10,000.

Source: Statistics Canada

Census Division (CD)
Census Division.

Census Division.

Census Metropolitan Area (CMA)
An area consisting of one or more neighbouring municipalities situated around a core. A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more live in the core.…

An area consisting of one or more neighbouring municipalities situated around a core. A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more live in the core.

Source: Statistics Canada

Change
The net increase/decrease in regional jobs in an industry or occupation or demographic over the selected timeframe.

The net increase/decrease in regional jobs in an industry or occupation or demographic over the selected timeframe.

Choropleth
A GIS data layer style (visualization method) that fills regions with a darker or lighter color shade based on numeric data. It is generally ideal for ratios and percentages, but generally not recommended for absolute…

A GIS data layer style (visualization method) that fills regions with a darker or lighter color shade based on numeric data. It is generally ideal for ratios and percentages, but generally not recommended for absolute numeric values.

CIP-to-NOC Mapping
The CIP-to-NOC mapping connects educational programs with target occupations, showing potential higher ed talent pipelines into occupations. Emsi’s CIP-to-NOC mapping is based on the United States' National Center for Education Statistics’ CIP-to-SOC mapping. Emsi has…

The CIP-to-NOC mapping connects educational programs with target occupations, showing potential higher ed talent pipelines into occupations. Emsi’s CIP-to-NOC mapping is based on the United States’ National Center for Education Statistics’ CIP-to-SOC mapping. Emsi has made modifications to the mapping to make it applicable to Canadian NOC codes.

Click here for a tutorial on editing the existing CIP-to-NOC mapping in Analyst/Developer.

If you’d like to view the complete CIP-to-NOC map, please speak to your Emsi Client Services Representative.

Sources: NCES: IPEDS

Class of Worker (CoW)
These categories provide distinctions between types of workers. The two classes of worker are Employed (Class 1) and Self-Employed (Class 2). Users can use either category in isolation to study a particular type of worker,…

These categories provide distinctions between types of workers. The two classes of worker are Employed (Class 1) and Self-Employed (Class 2). Users can use either category in isolation to study a particular type of worker, or both classes in conjunction to study the labor market as a whole.

Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP)
A standard numerical code for a post-secondary course of study. Canada's Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS) uses CIP codes as developed and defined by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES)…

A standard numerical code for a post-secondary course of study. Canada’s Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS) uses CIP codes as developed and defined by the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) to classify programs of study.

See also Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), CIP-to-NOC Mapping.

Source: NCES: IPEDS.

Cohort
A specific age group (which may also include gender) in demographic data, e.g., “males born between 1980 and 1984.” Over time, this cohort will move through standard CANSIM age categories such as “25 to 29…

A specific age group (which may also include gender) in demographic data, e.g., “males born between 1980 and 1984.” Over time, this cohort will move through standard CANSIM age categories such as “25 to 29 year olds” and “30 to 34 year olds.”

Competitive Effect
In shift share analysis this reflects the regional growth that cannot be explained by either overall national growth or industry/occupation-specific trends. This is the growth (or decline) that is unique to your region. See also…

In shift share analysis this reflects the regional growth that cannot be explained by either overall national growth or industry/occupation-specific trends. This is the growth (or decline) that is unique to your region. See also Shift Share.

Completer
A student who receives a degree, diploma, certificate, or other formal award. In order to be considered a completer, the degree/award must actually be conferred. Source: StatCan, PSIS.

A student who receives a degree, diploma, certificate, or other formal award. In order to be considered a completer, the degree/award must actually be conferred.

Source: StatCan, PSIS.

Completions
The number of students who completed a specific course of study in a given year. Includes all award levels. Source: StatCan, PSIS.

The number of students who completed a specific course of study in a given year. Includes all award levels.

Source: StatCan, PSIS.

Concentration
See Location Quotient.

See Location Quotient.

Current Year
"Current Year" refers to the latest year of data available from StatCan's Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH) and Labour Force Survey (LFS) datasets. Emsi updates to the latest version of each dataset in…

“Current Year” refers to the latest year of data available from StatCan’s Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH) and Labour Force Survey (LFS) datasets. Emsi updates to the latest version of each dataset in the first datarun of the year. Therefore, “Current Year” usually lags the calendar year by one year.

Deduplication of Job Postings
Deduplication refers to the process of identifying duplicate documents and accounting for those duplicates in the analysis of the data. Multiple copies of a particular posting are often scraped from various sources on the internet.…

Deduplication refers to the process of identifying duplicate documents and accounting for those duplicates in the analysis of the data. Multiple copies of a particular posting are often scraped from various sources on the internet. Rather than allowing the duplicates to artificially inflate the posting count, analyses of job postings data take these duplicates into account by deduplicating the data before presenting it for analysis.

Two postings that are duplicates are usually not exactly identical. The deduplication process uses a statistical classifier that has been trained to detect duplicates based on comparison of a number of fields in the postings such as location, job title, company name, and similarity of posting text.

Similarity of posting text is detected using shingling, a technique that analyzes the similarity of textual sequences in a block of text. For instance, given the sentence “the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog,” the following shingles might be evaluated:

  • the quick brown fox
  • quick brown fox jumped
  • brown fox jumped over
  • etc.

Potential duplicate postings’ shingles are compared and an index is assigned based on the similarity of the postings’ shingles. A textual shingling threshold, accompanied by the comparison of other fields checked by the statistical classifier, gives a reliable indicator of whether two postings duplicate each other.

Duplicate postings are stored and tracked as such along with original postings, ensuring that both total and unique (deduplicated) posting counts are available.

See also Total Job Postings and Unique Job Postings.

Deduplication of Job Postings (Temporal)
Job postings are deduplicated at a point in time using the normal deduplication criteria--textual similarity, identical locations, identical companies, etc. Job postings are also deduplicated over time to account for new postings appearing for the…

Job postings are deduplicated at a point in time using the normal deduplication criteria–textual similarity, identical locations, identical companies, etc. Job postings are also deduplicated over time to account for new postings appearing for the same vacancy after the other postings for the vacancy were taken down. A vacancy here refers to a job opening with any number of duplicate postings associated with it.

A vacancy is considered expired or closed when there are 0 active postings for it among all of its duplicate postings. For instance, a vacancy with three total postings is considered expired when all three associated postings are no longer active. However, there are cases in which a vacancy can expire and another posting will appear for it after its expiration. In cases like these, if the new posting appears within six weeks of the vacancy’s expiration, we revive the vacancy and count the new posting as another duplicate.

Here’s an example:

Day 1: A unique posting for a Nurse job in Winnipeg appears.
Day 3: Two duplicates of the posting appear on different job boards. The vacancy now has one unique posting and three total postings.
Day 6: The original posting and one of the newer postings are taken down. The vacancy still has one unique posting and three total postings.
Day 19: The last posting is taken down. The vacancy as a whole is now considered closed since all of its associated postings have been taken down.
Day 60: Another duplicate posting for the Winnipeg Nurse job opening appears. Today is the 41st day after the last posting expired (Day 19). 41 days is just shy of 6 weeks, so this posting is considered a true duplicate, and the vacancy is revived. The vacancy now has one unique posting and four total postings.
Day 65: The new posting is taken down and the vacancy is expired again, since there are 0 active postings associated with it.
Day 107: This is the 6-week cutoff date for the Winnipeg Nurse vacancy. No more postings have appeared for this vacancy, so the vacancy is retired permanently. Going forward, any postings that could have been considered duplicates of this vacancy will instead be counted to a new vacancy.
Day 250: Another “duplicate” posting for the Winnipeg Nurse job opening appears. However, since this posting appears after the 6-week cutoff, it is considered the first posting for a brand new vacancy and does not revive the prior vacancy.

See also Deduplication, Total Job Postings, Unique Job Postings

Demand (I-O)
Demand is an estimate of the amount of goods and services that all industries require from a given industry, whether domestic or international, in order to remain in operation. The value is calculated based on…

Demand is an estimate of the amount of goods and services that all industries require from a given industry, whether domestic or international, in order to remain in operation. The value is calculated based on industry purchases across the nation, measured in terms of sales. Industry wages, taxes, and other values added payments are indirectly part of the demand through the production of the supplying industry. It is not possible to know the proportions into which demand should be broken out into categories such as wages, taxes, etc., but it is assumed that demand includes those categories.

Demand is measured in terms of sales. Demand is not the same as sales, however. Rather, it is an estimate of what industries need. Sales is a measure of what industries actually buy or sell. We use average purchases across the nation to estimate what an industry needs, on average, in order to remain in operation; the unit of measurement for demand is still sales, however.

Direct Effect (I-O)
The effect of new input purchases by the initially changed industries. This is the first round of impacts. This change is due to inter-industry effects. Also see Initial, Indirect and Induced Effects. Source: Emsi's model,…

The effect of new input purchases by the initially changed industries. This is the first round of impacts. This change is due to inter-industry effects.

Also see Initial, Indirect and Induced Effects.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).

Economic Base
An economic base refers to the industries that contribute a large percentage of jobs and earnings to a local region. Aside from producing in-region income, they often bring in outside revenue as well, which helps…

An economic base refers to the industries that contribute a large percentage of jobs and earnings to a local region. Aside from producing in-region income, they often bring in outside revenue as well, which helps to grow the region’s economy.

Employment
See Jobs.

See Jobs.

End Year
In the Timeframe in the toolbar this is the second year you’ve chosen. If your timeframe is 2015-2019, 2019 is your “end year.” See Timeframe and Start Year.

In the Timeframe in the toolbar this is the second year you’ve chosen. If your timeframe is 2015-2019, 2019 is your “end year.”

See Timeframe and Start Year.

Establishments
See Business Location.

See Business Location.

Expected Change
In shift share analysis, this is the change expected due to national growth and industry/occupation mix effects. Change above this level is credited to the region's competitive effect. See also Shift Share.

In shift share analysis, this is the change expected due to national growth and industry/occupation mix effects. Change above this level is credited to the region’s competitive effect. See also Shift Share.

Exports (I-O)
For the purposes of this definition, “region” refers to the area defined by the user and passed into Analyst. Exports show the amount of money that is spent by industries located outside the region in…

For the purposes of this definition, “region” refers to the area defined by the user and passed into Analyst. Exports show the amount of money that is spent by industries located outside the region in exchange for goods or services produced by an industry located in the region.

Exports can be either foreign or domestic. An example of foreign exports would be a firm in Toronto providing consulting services for a firm in New York in exchange for dollars. An example of domestic exports would be a firm in Toronto selling a software product to a firm in British Columbia—the Toronto firm has exported its product to British Columbia in exchange for dollars. Both the consulting and software examples are considered exports, because a good or service is leaving the region, and dollars are entering the region in exchange.

The exports figure does not directly include wages of employees in the industry from which goods or services were purchased. Money entering the region in exchange for goods and services exported out of the region will likely be indirectly used to pay employees (regardless of where the employee lives), but the exports figure is agnostic of what the industry producing the good or service will do with the money.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).

Filter
In Emsi products, our various tables have "filter" capabilities. A filter is a set of one or more column/comparison/value criteria, used to display only specific rows of data in a table. For example, a criterion…

In Emsi products, our various tables have “filter” capabilities. A filter is a set of one or more column/comparison/value criteria, used to display only specific rows of data in a table. For example, a criterion might be “Total 2017 Jobs greater than or equal to 350”, where the column is “Total 2017 Jobs”, the comparison method is “greater than or equal to”, the value is “350”. When applied as a filter, this criterion will show a table with only those rows whose “Total 2017 Jobs” field is greater than or equal to 350. Various criteria in a filter can be combined with AND and OR operators.

Growth Effect
In shift share analysis this reflects the portion of regional growth that can be attributed to the overall growth of the entire national economy. See also Shift Share.

In shift share analysis this reflects the portion of regional growth that can be attributed to the overall growth of the entire national economy. See also Shift Share.

Growth Period
See Timeframe.

See Timeframe.

Imports (I-O)
For the purposes of this definition, “region” refers to the area defined by the user and passed into Analyst. Imports show the amount of money that is spent by all industries located in the region…

For the purposes of this definition, “region” refers to the area defined by the user and passed into Analyst.
Imports show the amount of money that is spent by all industries located in the region in exchange for goods or services produced by an industry located outside the region. Money leaves the region, and a good or service is brought into the region and consumed.

Imports can be foreign or domestic. An example of foreign imports would be a firm in Toronto paying money for consulting services from a firm in New York. An example of domestic imports would be the same firm in Toronto purchasing consulting services from a firm in British Columbia.

The imports figure does not directly include wages of employees in the industry from which goods or services were purchased. Money used to purchase imported goods and services will likely be indirectly used to pay employees of the industry from which the good or service was purchased (regardless of where the employee lives), but the imports figure is agnostic of what the industry producing the good or service will do with the money.

Indirect Effect (I-O)
The subsequent ripple effect in further supply chains resulting from the direct change. In more awkward terms, this shows the sales change in the supply chains of the supply chain, as a result of the…

The subsequent ripple effect in further supply chains resulting from the direct change. In more awkward terms, this shows the sales change in the supply chains of the supply chain, as a result of the direct change. This is the second round of impacts. This change is due to inter-industry effects.

Also see Initial, Direct and Induced Effects.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).

Induced Effect (I-O)
This change is due to the impact of the new earnings created by the initial, direct, and indirect changes. These earnings enter the economy as employees purchase food, clothing, and other goods and services within…

This change is due to the impact of the new earnings created by the initial, direct, and indirect changes. These earnings enter the economy as employees purchase food, clothing, and other goods and services within the region. In other words, this figure represents the income effects on inter-industry trade.

Also see Initial, Direct and Indirect Effects.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).

Industry
A group of businesses that produce similar goods and services, and share similar production processes for creating the goods and services they sell. Industries are classified using NAICS codes. Note that in the NAICS system,…

A group of businesses that produce similar goods and services, and share similar production processes for creating the goods and services they sell. Industries are classified using NAICS codes. Note that in the NAICS system, what a business produces is given less importance than the process used to create it.

Industry Requirements
Also known as an industry's supply chain, industry requirements describe the purchases a given industry makes from all other industries, and also estimates whether those purchases came from within or without the region of study.…

Also known as an industry’s supply chain, industry requirements describe the purchases a given industry makes from all other industries, and also estimates whether those purchases came from within or without the region of study. Also known as Gap Analysis, this data is an important part of import substitution strategies employed by economic development organizations.

See also Industry Supply Chain Report.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from StatCan.

Initial Effect (I-O)
This number represents the initial change in wages or jobs as input by the user into an input-output scenario, and therefore does not include ripple effects. See also Direct, Indirect, and Induced Effects.

This number represents the initial change in wages or jobs as input by the user into an input-output scenario, and therefore does not include ripple effects.

See also Direct, Indirect, and Induced Effects.

Input-Output Model (I-O)
An Input-Output model represents the flow of money in an economy, primarily through the connection between industries; to what extent are different industries buying and selling to one another in a particular geographic region. Also…

An Input-Output model represents the flow of money in an economy, primarily through the connection between industries; to what extent are different industries buying and selling to one another in a particular geographic region. Also accounted for in an I-O model, are things like government spending, household spending, investments, imports and exports, all of which help us gain a full picture of what is happening in an economy.

Inverse Staffing Patterns
A table of percentages that shows, on average, how regional occupations are divided up among regional industries. For example, a (simplified) inverse staffing pattern for registered nurses may show that 70% of RNs are employed…

A table of percentages that shows, on average, how regional occupations are divided up among regional industries. For example, a (simplified) inverse staffing pattern for registered nurses may show that 70% of RNs are employed by hospitals, 10% by local government (i.e., public schools), 10% by nursing homes, and 10% by offices of physicians. Inverse staffing patterns identify the industries currently employing this occupation, including those which are likely to be hiring due to growth or displacing workers due to contraction.

See also Staffing Pattern.

Source: Primarily industry by occupation percentages from the Census at the provincial level.

Jobs
A job is any position in which a worker provides labor in exchange for monetary compensation. This includes those who work as employees for businesses and proprietors who work for themselves. Due to limitations of…

A job is any position in which a worker provides labor in exchange for monetary compensation. This includes those who work as employees for businesses and proprietors who work for themselves.

Due to limitations of source data, both full- and part-time jobs are included and counted equally, i.e. job counts are not adjusted to full-time equivalents. Geographically, employee jobs are always reported by the place of work rather than the worker’s place of residence. Conversely, self-employed jobs are always reported by their place of residence. Unpaid family workers and volunteers are excluded from all Emsi data.

Source: Emsi data based primarily on the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), Canadian Business Patterns (CBP), Labour Force Survey (LFS), and the Census.

Jobs Multiplier
The total jobs created in a region as a result of a single new job. This number includes the yield and the initial job addition. In other words, a jobs multiplier of 1.82 is made…

The total jobs created in a region as a result of a single new job. This number includes the yield and the initial job addition. In other words, a jobs multiplier of 1.82 is made up of the initial job added (1.0) and the further yield (0.82).

Labour Force Survey (LFS)
The Labour Force Survey is a study of the employment circumstances of the Canadian population. It is the largest monthly household study in Canada and provides the official measures of employment and unemployment. Source: Statistics…

The Labour Force Survey is a study of the employment circumstances of the Canadian population. It is the largest monthly household study in Canada and provides the official measures of employment and unemployment.

Source: Statistics Canada

Location Quotient
Location quotient (LQ) is a way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region…

Location quotient (LQ) is a way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region “unique.” For example, if the leather products manufacturing industry accounts for 10% of jobs in your area but 1% of jobs nationally, then the area’s leather-producing industry has an LQ of 10. So in your area, leather manufacturing accounts for a larger than average “share” of total jobs—the share is ten times larger than normal.

For a long-form explanation of Location Quotient, see Emsi’s blog post on the subject.

Source: Emsi’s proprietary employment data.

Mix Effect
In shift share analysis, this reflects regional growth that can be attributed to positive trends in the specific industry or occupation at a national level. For example, nursing jobs might be growing in your region…

In shift share analysis, this reflects regional growth that can be attributed to positive trends in the specific industry or occupation at a national level. For example, nursing jobs might be growing in your region and that’s great. However, looking at the national trends for nursing jobs reveals that they’re growing most everywhere. In this case, your region isn’t necessarily “excelling” at providing nursing jobs; they’re doing well everywhere, and every region in the country will likely see some growth as a result.

See this longer article on shift share and its component parts.

Multipliers (I-O)
A multiplier is a way of measuring the interconnectedness of industries and can also be used to describe how important one industry is to other industries within the region. For example, if an industry has…

A multiplier is a way of measuring the interconnectedness of industries and can also be used to describe how important one industry is to other industries within the region. For example, if an industry has a multiplier of 2.5, for every positive or negative change on that industry, the total effect on the regional economy will be 2.5 times the original change.

Sources: Emsi’s proprietary Input-Output model, the Flegg Location Quotient, StatCan’s Commuting Flows data, and StatCan’s analytical input-output table.

National Household Survey (NHS)
The National Household Survey (NHS) was a voluntary survey (not required by law) that replaced the annual census in 2011.  The topics of the survey included Aboriginal Peoples, Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Education and Labour,…

The National Household Survey (NHS) was a voluntary survey (not required by law) that replaced the annual census in 2011.  The topics of the survey included Aboriginal Peoples, Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Education and Labour, Mobility and Migration, Language of Work, and Income and Housing. As the survey was not mandatory, fewer responses were recorded than in previous years, and the annual census has since been reinstated as the primary survey. NHS data is used only for datasets in 2011.

Source: Statistics Canada

National Occupation Classification (NOC)
The National Occupational Classification (NOC) system is used by Federal statistical agencies to classify workers into occupational categories for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or disseminating data. All workers are classified into one of about…

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) system is used by Federal statistical agencies to classify workers into occupational categories for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or disseminating data. All workers are classified into one of about 500 unit groups according to their occupational definition. To facilitate classification, unit groups are combined to form about 150 minor groups, about 40 major groups, and 11 broad occupational categories.

The NOC system uses codes to divide occupations into four levels: major groups, minor groups, broad occupations, and detailed occupations.

Example

  • 3: Health occupations (Broad occupational category)
  • 32: Technical occupations in health (Major group)
  • 322: Technical occupations in dental health care (Minor group)
  • 3222: Dental hygienists and dental therapists (Unit group)

Emsi currently uses the NOC 2016 Version 1.1 Classification.

Source: StatCan’s NOC 2016 Version 1.1.

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard system for classifying business establishments. Each establishment is assigned a code and category title, organizing them primarily by similar production processes. Codes are hierarchical: less…

The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard system for classifying business establishments. Each establishment is assigned a code and category title, organizing them primarily by similar production processes. Codes are hierarchical: less detailed categories are derived by removing digits from the end of more detailed codes.

Example

  • 23: Construction (Sector)
  • 237: Heavy and civil engineering construction (Subsector)
  • 2371: Utility system construction (Industry group)

The NAICS classification is updated every five years to better reflect economic realities. The most recent version is NAICS 2017 Version 3.0. Version 3.0 is a Canada-specific NAICS version that incorporates several new codes for cannabis industries.

Source: StatCan’s NAICS 2017 Version 3.0.

Occupation Earnings
The hourly earnings for occupations. Hourly earnings are presented for five percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 90th). Average hourly earnings are also available. Occupation earnings data are only available for the Employees Class…

The hourly earnings for occupations. Hourly earnings are presented for five percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 90th). Average hourly earnings are also available. Occupation earnings data are only available for the Employees Class of Worker; they are not available for the Self-Employed Class of Worker. Occupation earnings do not include benefits.

Average earnings are determined by dividing the total earnings for the occupation by the number of jobs in the occupation. Percentile earnings indicate what percent of the jobs in the occupation earn that amount or less. For example, 10th percentile earnings of $12/hr indicate that 10% of the workers in that occupation make $12/hr or less. Median earnings of $15/hr indicate that half of workers in that occupation make more than $15/hr, and half make less than $15/hr. 10th percentile earnings are often used as a proxy for entry level wages, as they represent the lowest earnings in the occupation.

See also Class of Worker.

Source: Emsi’s industry data, regional occupation data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), and regional staffing patterns taken from the Census.

Occupational Programs
The programs in the region of study that may train for this occupation. Emsi uses a CIP-to-NOC crosswalk to build these associations; the occupations linked to a particular program may be edited from the program's Program…

The programs in the region of study that may train for this occupation. Emsi uses a CIP-to-NOC crosswalk to build these associations; the occupations linked to a particular program may be edited from the program’s Program Overview page.

See also CIP-to-NOC Mapping, Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP).

Source: PSIS; the U.S. Dept. of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) CIP-to-SOC crosswalk with modifications to fit Canadian NOCs.

Posting Intensity
Posting Intensity is a ratio of total job postings to unique, or deduplicated, job postings. A higher than average posting intensity can mean that employers are putting more effort than normal into hiring that position.…

Posting Intensity is a ratio of total job postings to unique, or deduplicated, job postings. A higher than average posting intensity can mean that employers are putting more effort than normal into hiring that position. Posting intensity is available by occupation, by job title, by company, and by region.

See also Total Job Postings, Unique Job Postings, and Deduplication.

Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS)
Emsi's source for enrollments and completions data for higher education institutions in Canada. PSIS' reference period begins the day after the end of the institution's previous winter term (usually in April, May, or June), and…

Emsi’s source for enrollments and completions data for higher education institutions in Canada. PSIS’ reference period begins the day after the end of the institution’s previous winter term (usually in April, May, or June), and goes through the last day of the winter term of the following year.

PSIS aims to collect information from “Canadian public postsecondary institutions (universities, community colleges and trade and vocational training centres).” PSIS is a mandatory survey. According to PSIS, the response rate was 94.4% in 2016/2017.

See also Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), CIP-to-NOC Mapping.

Source: PSIS.

Purdue Industry Clusters
The Purdue industry clusters were created through a joint project between Emsi and the Center for Regional Development at Purdue University. The clusters can be found by clicking Groups in the header bar and selecting…

The Purdue industry clusters were created through a joint project between Emsi and the Center for Regional Development at Purdue University. The clusters can be found by clicking Groups in the header bar and selecting Industry Groups, then Template Groups.

Clusters are groups of interconnected industries that typically purchase from one another or otherwise benefit from being nearby each other. Many different definitions exist for different clusters, and we encourage our clients to use their local knowledge when doing cluster analysis. The Purdue clusters can be used as-is, or you can create a new group based on a Purdue cluster and modify it to suit your local needs.

See this article for more information on modifying template groups.

Regional Requirements (I-O)
A table quantifying the goods and services that your region requires from each industry, as well as the degree to which those requirements are met within the region. For instance, if the regional requirements of…

A table quantifying the goods and services that your region requires from each industry, as well as the degree to which those requirements are met within the region. For instance, if the regional requirements of Toronto for Motor vehicle manufacturing (3361) is $6.3B, that means that all of the industries in Toronto spend $6.3B in total on Motor vehicle manufacturing. The table will also contain columns outlining how much of the $6.3B demand is satisfied in the region, and how much of the $6.3B must be purchased from outside the region to satisfy the remainder of demand.

See also Industry Requirements.

Sales (I-O)
In input-output modeling, Sales can be looked at in two different ways because I-O modeling incorporates a double accounting structure. Sales can be seen either as the Total Gross Output (TGO) or Total Gross Input…

In input-output modeling, Sales can be looked at in two different ways because I-O modeling incorporates a double accounting structure. Sales can be seen either as the Total Gross Output (TGO) or Total Gross Input (TGI). TGO can also be referred to as total gross expenditures.

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).

Sales Multiplier
The total sales created in a region as a result of a single dollar of new sales. This number includes the yield and the initial dollar addition. In other words, a sales multiplier of 1.82…

The total sales created in a region as a result of a single dollar of new sales. This number includes the yield and the initial dollar addition. In other words, a sales multiplier of 1.82 is made up of the initial dollar added (1.0) and the further yield (0.82).

Scraping
Web scraping is the process of gathering data from the internet, usually using automated bots or web crawlers. Emsi's job postings are scraped from company websites and job boards. Job boards work directly with employers,…

Web scraping is the process of gathering data from the internet, usually using automated bots or web crawlers. Emsi’s job postings are scraped from company websites and job boards. Job boards work directly with employers, who pay the job board to list their postings. Company websites and job boards and considered primary sources of postings data–the information for the postings is coming from the original source of the job vacancy.

Job postings are not collected from aggregator sites for several reasons. First, aggregators are not primary sources of posting data. Aggregators behave more like internet search engines–they scrape the web, find job postings, and re-post them. Additionally, postings collected from aggregators generally contain less detail and do not contain any new information that was not available from the original source. Finally, aggregators are not incentivized to ensure that their postings are up to date. Since companies pay job boards to post their vacancies, the likelihood of postings continuing to be available after a vacancy is filled are much lower. Including only the most up-to-date sources allows Emsi to more accurately provide data concerning the expiration dates of job postings.

Users often ask about the absence of postings from Indeed and LinkedIn in Emsi’s job postings. Both sources have asked that their sites not be scraped for job postings; therefore Emsi does not collect or display postings from either source.

Shift Share
Used in both industry and occupation contexts, Shift Share is a standard method of regional economic analysis that helps identify whether job change in an industry/occupation in a region is due to national factors–the “rising…

Used in both industry and occupation contexts, Shift Share is a standard method of regional economic analysis that helps identify whether job change in an industry/occupation in a region is due to national factors–the “rising tide lifts all boats” phenomenon–or whether it’s due to factors within the region of study itself.

An industry/occupation could be growing/declining in a region because of one or several of the following factors:

  • Growth Effect: the overall growth/decline of the entire national economy;
  • Industry/Occupation Mix Effect: the growth/decline of the industry/occupation in question at the national level;
  • Competitive Effect: growth/decline that cannot be explained completely by national trends and therefore highlights something unique about the region of study.

The most important of these three is Competitive Effect, which identifies region-specific factors as being responsible for the growth/decline of the industry/occupation in question.

Expected Change shows the expected growth/decline for the industry/occupation in region in question given the National Growth Effect and the Industry/Occupation Mix Effect. The Competitive Effect is the leftover effect (if any) that cannot be explained by the National Growth Effect and Industry/Occupation Mix Effects as shown in the Expected Change metric.

For a deeper dive into Shift Share, see this article.

Source: Emsi’s proprietary employment data.

Staffing Pattern
Staffing patterns show the occupational makeup of an industry in percentages. For example, a (simplified) staffing pattern for the industry “Hospitals” might show that 10% of jobs in the hospitals industry are occupied by surgeons,…

Staffing patterns show the occupational makeup of an industry in percentages. For example, a (simplified) staffing pattern for the industry “Hospitals” might show that 10% of jobs in the hospitals industry are occupied by surgeons, 15% by general practitioners, 20% by nurses, 5% by information technology support staff, 5% by janitors, 1% by chief executives, and so on.

See also Inverse Staffing Pattern.

Source: Primarily the industry by occupation percentages from the Census at the provincial level and Emsi’s proprietary employment data.

Start Year
In the Timeframe in the toolbar this is the first year you’ve chosen. If your timeframe is 2008-2013, 2008 is your “start year.” See Timeframe and End Year.

In the Timeframe in the toolbar this is the first year you’ve chosen. If your timeframe is 2008-2013, 2008 is your “start year.”

See Timeframe and End Year.

Statistics Canada (StatCan)
Statistics Canada is the national statistical office. The agency ensures Canadians have the key information on Canada’s economy, society and environment that they require to function effectively as citizens and decision makers. Source: Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada is the national statistical office. The agency ensures Canadians have the key information on Canada’s economy, society and environment that they require to function effectively as citizens and decision makers.

Source: Statistics Canada

Suppression
Suppression refers to the practice of not disclosing (“suppressing”) data points that can be traced back to a particular person or business in a particular location. Government entities suppress data points in data sets whenever…

Suppression refers to the practice of not disclosing (“suppressing”) data points that can be traced back to a particular person or business in a particular location. Government entities suppress data points in data sets whenever disclosing the data point in question would expose a business or individual.

Because Emsi’s mission is to drive economic prosperity in our clients’ communities, we provide the most accurate labor market data possible. Accurate LMI allows our clients to make informed decisions for the good of their communities. For this reason, we apply sophisticated unsuppression techniques to government LMI data, providing educated and bounded estimates for suppressed data points.

To read more on government suppression and the extent to which suppression can impact data, see our blog post.

Survey of Enrollment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH)
The Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours provides a monthly portrait of the amount of earnings, as well as the number of jobs (i.e., occupied positions) and hours worked by detailed industry at the national,…

The Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours provides a monthly portrait of the amount of earnings, as well as the number of jobs (i.e., occupied positions) and hours worked by detailed industry at the national, provincial and territorial levels.

SEPH data provide the principal input to labour income estimates; they also serve as a proxy output measure for about 15% of real gross domestic product and ‘nominal’ gross domestic product.

Source: Statistics Canada

Timeframe
A timeframe defined by a start and an end year. In our reports, published data is employed for each year in the growth period it is available. For future years (and sometimes the year previous…

A timeframe defined by a start and an end year. In our reports, published data is employed for each year in the growth period it is available. For future years (and sometimes the year previous to the present) Emsi projections are used.

See Start Year and End Year.

Total Job Postings
Total Job Postings is the total and unduplicated number of online job advertisements listed by different companies on career sites and job boards. These postings have been paid for (“syndicated”) and are not free job…

Total Job Postings is the total and unduplicated number of online job advertisements listed by different companies on career sites and job boards. These postings have been paid for (“syndicated”) and are not free job postings.

Deduplication is the process of identifying duplicate job postings and only counting one of the duplicates. The total posting count is the count of postings before the deduplication process. The unique posting count is the count of postings after the deduplication process. For example, if a user runs a report that returns 12 total job postings and 2 unique postings, this means that the 12 postings contained 10 duplicates and only 2 unique job advertisements.

See also Deduplication and Unique Job Postings.

Unclassified Industry
In an industry table, Emsi displays a unique NAICS code X000 for "Unclassified Industry." This is a bucket developed for businesses not reporting their NAICS to SEPH, placing them in the Unclassified Industry category. Source: Survey of Employment, Payrolls…

In an industry table, Emsi displays a unique NAICS code X000 for “Unclassified Industry.” This is a bucket developed for businesses not reporting their NAICS to SEPH, placing them in the Unclassified Industry category.

Source: Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH).

Unclassified Occupation
The Unclassified occupation (X000) is used as an occupational bucket for the Unclassified industry, which does not have a known staffing pattern. Without a staffing pattern, it's not possible to translate industry employment to occupation…

The Unclassified occupation (X000) is used as an occupational bucket for the Unclassified industry, which does not have a known staffing pattern. Without a staffing pattern, it’s not possible to translate industry employment to occupation employment. Therefore Emsi uses an Unclassified SOC code to hold occupational information where an industry classification was not provided.

Unique Job Postings
Unique Job Postings is the number of deduplicated job advertisements listed by different companies on career sites and job boards. Deduplication is the process of identifying duplicate job postings and only counting one of the…

Unique Job Postings is the number of deduplicated job advertisements listed by different companies on career sites and job boards.

Deduplication is the process of identifying duplicate job postings and only counting one of the duplicates. The unique posting count is the count of postings after the deduplication process has taken place. The total posting count is the count of postings before deduplication. For example, if a user runs a report that returns 12 total job postings and 2 unique job postings, this means that the 12 postings contained 10 duplicates and only 2 unique job advertisements.

See also Deduplication and Total Job Postings.

Wages
Wages represent employee (Class of Worker 1) compensation only and do not include employee benefits. Income for self-employed workers (Class of Worker 2) are not available and are thus not provided in Emsi's data. See…

Wages represent employee (Class of Worker 1) compensation only and do not include employee benefits. Income for self-employed workers (Class of Worker 2) are not available and are thus not provided in Emsi’s data.

See also Class of Worker.

Sources: StatCan Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), StatCan Labour Force Survey, and Census.

Wages Multiplier (I-O)
The total wages created in a region as a result of a single dollar of new wages. This number includes the yield and the initial dollar addition. In other words, a wage multiplier of 1.82…

The total wages created in a region as a result of a single dollar of new wages. This number includes the yield and the initial dollar addition. In other words, a wage multiplier of 1.82 is made up of the initial dollar added (1.0) and the further yield (0.82).

Source: Emsi’s model, incorporating data from Statistics Canada (StatCan).